Wednesday, January 3, 2007

Glossary B

B


BACILLUS LARVAE
The bacterium that causes American foulbrood in bee colonies.

BACTERIUM
Microscopic, one-celled organisms lacking chlorophyll, and causing disease in tomato; such as bacterial canker, bacterial wilt, bacterial stem rot, pith necrosis, and bacterial soft rot.

BACTERIA
Microorganisms that break down organic materials in the first stages of composting. It is bacteria that generate the heat associated with hot composting. The three types of bacteria are psychrophilic, mesophyllic, and thermophilic.

BALSAMIC VINEGAR
Balsamic vinegar is an aged reduction of white sweet grapes (Trebbiano for red and Spergola for white sauvignon) that are boiled to syrup. The grapes are cooked very slowly in copper cauldrons over an open flame until the water content is reduced by over 50%. The resulting "grape must" is placed into wooden barrels where older balsamic vinegar is added to assist in the acetification. Each year the vinegar is transferred to different wood barrels so that the vinegar can obtain some of the flavors of the different woods. The only approved woods are oak, cherry, chestnut, mulberry, cacia, juniper, and ash. Balsamic vinegar can only be produced in the regions of Modena and Reggio in Italy.

History - The first historical reference to balsamic vinegar dates back to 1046, when a bottle of balsamic vinegar was reportedly given to Emperor Enrico III of Franconia as a gift. In the middle Ages, it was used as a disinfectant.

BARE-ROOT
Usually referring to decidious shrubs and trees, and some other perennials, with all the soil removed from their roots that are sold at nurseries.

BARLEY
Barley, as a food, is most commonly identified as pearl barley, which is traditionally used in soups and stews. In the last few years, we've become more creative with barley and have used it in summer salads, casseroles, and side dishes. Barley is also used as a commercial ingredient in prepared foods such as breakfast cereals, soups, pilaf mixes, breads, cookies, crackers, and snack bars. Today it is the world's fourth largest cereal crop.

History - Barley has held a prominent and long-standing place in the history of food, being the world's oldest grain, and has been cultivated for about 8,000 years. Babylonians brewed beer from barley around 2500 B.C. Both the ancient Greeks and Hebrews made use of barley in porridge and bread. Barley remained an important bread grain in Europe until the 1500s when wheat breads became popular.

BARTLETT PEAR
The Bartlett pear variety originated in Berkshire, England, in the 17th century, by a schoolmaster named John Stair. Stair sold some of his pear tree cuttings to a horticulturist named Williams, who further developed the variety and renamed it after himself. After pear seedlings crossed the Atlantic with the early colonists, the Williams pear found fame and fortune in 1812 under the tutelage of nurseryman, Enoch Bartlett, of Dorchester, Massachusetts. Bartlett, unaware of the pear's true name, distributed it under his own name. Ever since, the pear has been known as the Bartlett in the United States, but is still referred to as the Williams pear in other parts of the world. Bartlett pear trees eventually came out West in the covered wagons of the 49ers heading for the Great California Gold Rush.

BASAL ROSETTE
Ground level ring of leaves (single or multiple layers) around the plant's central stem where it joins the roots.

BASIL
The Greek name for basil means "king", which shows how highly it has been regarded throughout the ages. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is a sun-loving annual with highly aromatic leaves that has a pleasant spicy odor and taste somewhat like anise or cloves. Both the leaves and their essential oils are used as flavoring agents. There are many different types of sweet basil – large and dwarf forms, with green, purple, or variegated leaves. Many of these widely grown plants are ornamental, as well as edible.

In Italy this plant is a symbol of love; a sprig of it presented to your lover bespeaks fidelity. When a woman puts a pot of basil on the balcony outside her room, it means that she is ready to receive her suitor.

BAT GUANO
Manure, i.e., excretions, of bats.

BATCH PROCESS
An entire cubic-yard pile is built at the same time, and finishes decomposing at the same time. This is the opposite of the "add as you go"method. Because the entire pile is built at one time, factors such as moisture, C:N ratio, variety of textures and sizes, etc. can be more closely controlled for fast decomposition.

BEE BLOWER
An engine with attached blower used to dislodge bees from combs in a honey super by creating a high-velocity, high-volume wind.

BEE BREAD
A mixture of collected pollen and nectar or honey, deposited in the cells of a comb to be used as food by the bees.

BEE BRUSH
A brush or whisk broom used to remove bees from combs.

BEE METAMORPHOSIS
The three stages through which a bee passes before reaching maturity: egg, larva, and pupa.

BEE SPACE
The 1/4 to 3/8-inch space between combs and hive parts in which bees build no comb or deposit only a small amount of propolis.

BEESWAX
A complex mixture of organic compounds secreted by special glands on the last four visible segments on the ventral side of the worker bee's abdomen and used for building comb. Its melting point is from 143.6 to 147.2 degrees F.

BEE TREE
A tree with one of more hollows occupied by a colony of bees.

BEE VEIL
A cloth or wire netting for protecting the beekeeper's head and neck from stings.

BEE VENOM
The poison secreted by special glands attched to the stinger of the bee.

BEARDED
A petal bearing a tuft or row of long hairs.

BENZALDEHYDE
A volatile, almond-smelling chemical used to drive bees out of honey supers.

BICOLOR
A flower with petals which bear two distinctly different colors.

BIENNIAL
A plant that grows, flowers, produces seeds or fruit, and dies in two years. Some herbacous flowers and vegetables are biennial. Most biennial plants produce foliage the first year and bloom the second year.

BIFIDA / BIFIDUM
bifid or divided into two parts or portions. In the case of Phlox bifida the petal lobes (corolla) are cut into two lobes.

BIGENERIC
A hybrid produced by crossing two different genera.

BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL
Using living organisms such as beneficial insects or parasites to help control a pest or limit populations of garden pests.

BIODEGRADABLE
The ability of a substance to be broken down physically and/or chemically by microorganisms. For example, many chemicals, food scraps, cotton, wool, and paper are bio-degradable; plastics and polyester generally are not.

BIODIVERSITY
In an environments created solely by nature, there is a variety of plant and animal life, ranging from the very small to the very large. Nature has created a natural system for post and disease control. However, when we only incorporate limited variety in our landscapes, the system of checks and balances breaks down. In general, the more diverse we can make our gardens, the healthier they will be.

BIOMASS / ENERGY
Term to describe the resource of energy stored in plants and animals or released during their use or processing including as a by-product or "waste".

BIOSPHERE
The system comprising the earth and its atmosphere, which supports life.

BLADE
The expanded part of a leaf or petal.

BLEEDING
The loss of sap from plant tissues which have been cut.

BLIND
The loss of the growing point, resulting in stoppage of growth. Also, failure to produce flowers or fruit.

BOARDMAN FEEDER
A device for feeding bees in warm weather, consisting of an inverted jar with an attachment allowing access to the hive entrance.

BOLT
Annual vegetables or flowers that grow quickly to flowering stage at the expense of their best overall development.

BONSAI
The art of dwarfing trees by careful root and stem pruning coupled with root restriction.

BOSS
A ring of prominent and decorative stamens.

BOTANICAL NAME
The Latin scientific name of a plant is its botanical name. There is only one botanical name per plant so if you want a specific variety, use it's botanical name to be sure you're getting what you want.

BOTANY
Botany is the scientific study of plant life. As a branch of biology, it is also sometimes referred to as plant science(s) or plant biology. Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines that study the growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, diseases, and evolution of plants. Vegetation: all the plant life in a particular region or period; "Pleistocene vegetation"; "the flora of southern California"; "the botany of China."

BOTTLE GARDEN
A form of terrarium in which a large and heavy glass container such as a carboy is used.

BOTTOM HEAT
Undersurface heat provided in the soil by electric cables or hot water pipes.

BLOSSOM-END ROT
A sunken, leathery brown or black spot on the bottom or near the bottom of a tomato fruit; not from a disease; usually from lack of water or not enough calcium in the fruit.

BRACE COMB
A bit of comb built between two combs to fasten them together, between a comb and adjacent wood, or between two wooden parts such as top bars.

BRACT
A modified leaf, often highly colored and sometimes mistaken for a petal. Examples of house plants with showy bracts are Poinsettia, Aphelandra and Bougainvillea

BRAULA COECA
The scientific name of a wingless fly commonly known as the bee louse.

BREAK
Production of a side shoot after removal of the growing point.

BROOM
Any of various Mediterranean shrubs of the genus Cytisus in the pea family, especially C. scoparius, having mostly compound leaves with three leaflets and showy, usually bright yellow flowers.
Any of several similar or related shrubs, especially in the genera Genista and Spartium.

BROOD
Bees not yet emerged from their cells: eggs, larvae, and pupae.

BROOD CHAMBER
The part of the hive in which the brood is reared; may include one or more hive bodies and the combs within.

BROWNS
The term "browns" is used to denote organic materials high in carbon, more specifically, materials whose carbon to nitrogen ratio is higher than 30:1. (Materials high in nitrogen are referred to as "greens"). Achieving a carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of about 30:1 is one factor in creating favorable conditions for backyard pile composting.

BUD
A dorment growth point.

BUD COUNT
The number of early buds - not all may be allowed to develop fully.

BUD UNION
A swollen and distinct node when a bud has been grafted.

BULB
A storage organ, usually formed below ground level, used for propagation. A true bulb consists of fleshy scales surrounding the central bud, but the term is often loosely applied to corms, rhizomes and tubers.

BULBIL
An immature small bulb formed on the stem of a plant; e.g Lily.

BULBLET
An immature small bulb formed at the base of a mature bulb; e.g Hyacinth.

BULLISH
A plant with thick, leathery, darkgreen leaves, little or no fruit, and very vegetative; may be caused by overfertilization with nitrogen or genetic off-type.

BUTTERFLY GARDEN
Planting intending to attact and feed members of Lepidoptera

BUTTON CENTER
A double rose flower with unexpanded central petaloid parts

BUMBLEBEE
Like the common honeybee, the bumblebee feeds on nectar and gathers pollen to feed its young. They tend to be larger than other members of the bee family. Most, but not all, bumblebee species are gentle. Queen and worker bumblebees can sting, which is not barbed like that of the honeybee, so they can sting more than once.

Bumblebees are characterized by a larger black body with white, yellow, orange, or even red stripes, while some species may be entirely black. Another distinguishing characteristic is the nature of the soft long pile that covers their entire body, making them appear and feel fuzzy.

Bumblebees are incredibly important pollinators of both crops and wildflowers, and are increasingly cultured for agricultural use as pollinators. Bumblebees can pollinate plant species that other pollinators cannot by using a technique known as buzz pollination. For example, bumblebee colonies are often emplaced in greenhouse tomato production, because the frequency of "buzzing" that a bumblebee exhibits, effectively pollinates tomatoes.